What is Transferability in Qualitative Research?
A brief introduction to Transferability
For more best practices see our method overview
Definition of Transferability as Criterion of Trustworthiness
Transferability is one of the four key criteria of Trustworthiness in qualitative research according to a naturalistic research paradigm as conceptualized by Guba (1981). Transferability refers to the extent to which the findings and interpretations derived from a study can be applicable and relevant to other contexts or settings beyond the specific research context. In this sense the concept is closely related to the rationalistic concept of external validity. It involves the ability to generalize or apply the knowledge gained from a study to similar situations, populations, or settings, thus enhancing the potential for broader understanding and practical utility. In qualitative research, transferability is distinct from the concept of statistical generalizability commonly associated with quantitative research. Instead of aiming for representative samples or statistical significance, transferability emphasizes the richness and depth of data, seeking to capture the complexities and nuances of human experiences within a particular context.
Transferability should not be viewed in isolation but always in the context of the other criteria of Trustworthiness:
Strategies to improve Transferability
- Thick Description: Provide rich and detailed descriptions of the research context, including the participants, setting, and cultural nuances. This allows readers to understand the unique features and characteristics of the study, facilitating the assessment of its relevance and applicability to other contexts.
- Sampling Strategies: Adopt purposeful sampling techniques to ensure a diverse range of participants who can offer different perspectives and experiences. This increases the potential for transferability by capturing a broader range of voices and contexts within the study.
- Reflexivity: Engage in reflexive practices by critically examining and documenting the researcher's role, biases, and assumptions throughout the research process. Transparently reflecting on the potential impact of these factors on the study's findings enhances transferability and allows readers to consider the influence of the researcher's perspective.
- Data Triangulation: Utilize multiple data sources, such as interviews, observations, and documents, to corroborate and validate the findings. Triangulation enhances transferability by providing different angles of understanding and strengthening the Trustworthiness of the research. Another form of triangulation that is particularily helpful for strenghtening transferability is Theory Triangulation.
- Contextualization: Clearly articulate the unique contextual factors that may have influenced the research findings. This includes describing any specific cultural, social, or environmental elements that shape the research context. Such contextualization enables readers to assess the transferability of the findings by considering the similarities and differences between their own context and the research context.
Conclusion on Transferability
Transferability plays a vital role in qualitative research, as it allows researchers to extend the applicability and relevance of their findings beyond the specific research context. Guba and Lincoln's framework emphasizes the importance of providing rich and detailed descriptions, engaging in Theoretical Sampling, practicing Reflexivity, employing triangulation (Data Triangulation and Theory Triangulation), using Member Checking, and contextualizing the research.
By employing these strategies, researchers can enhance the transferability of their qualitative research, thereby increasing its potential for wider understanding and practical utility. Thick descriptions enable readers to grasp the unique features of the research context, while purposeful sampling ensures diverse perspectives are captured. Reflexivity promotes transparency and awareness of the researcher's biases, fostering a deeper understanding of the research process.
Overall, strengthening transferability in qualitative research enhances the robustness and usefulness of the study, enabling researchers to make meaningful contributions to knowledge and practice. By following these strategies, researchers can ensure that their findings have the potential to resonate and inform decision-making in diverse settings and promote a broader understanding of human experiences.